15:00—15:35 Dirt-poor soils, pesky parasites and friendly fungi shape plant diversity in south-western Australia
Hans Lambers, University of Western Australia
【个人简介】Hans Lambers is a Professor, Botanist, and Ecologist at The University of Western Australia. He has been engaged in the research of plant nutrition and plant ecology for more than 30 years, and has made shining achievements in elucidating the mechanisms underlying the acclimation of local plant species to the most severely phosphorus-impoverished soils. He has published more than 600 papers, and has been featured on Highly Cited lists of Clarivate in Agricultural sciences and Plant and animal sciences, with an H index of 114. He was elected to the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (2003), and the Australian Academy of Science (2012). He received Honorary Professorships from China Agricultural University (2002), Chinese Academy of Sciences (Research Centre for Eco- Environmental Sciences, Beijing) (2004), Shenyang Agricultural University (2018), and Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China. (2019). He was also appointed as Distinguished Professor at the National Academy of Agriculture Green Development at China Agricultural University (2018). He received the Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Society of Root Research (2018) and the John Oldham Conservation Employee Award from the Conservation Council of WA (2019). Since 1992, he has been Editor-in-Chief for Plant and Soil and editors for multiple leading journals in plant sciences and ecology (e.g., Plant, Cell and Environment, Tree Physiology, and Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics).
【中文简介】Hans Lambers 是西澳大利亚大学植物学与生态学教授，荷兰皇家艺术与科学院院士，澳大利亚科学院院士,中国农业大学、中国科学院生态环境中心、沈阳农业大学名誉教授。长期从事植物营养学与植物生态学研究，在本地物种适应极端低磷贫瘠土壤的机制研究取得重要成果，发表学术论文600多篇，引用近6万次，H指数114，入选科睿唯安全球高被引学者，获国际根系研究学会终身成就奖。长期担任Plant and Soil 主编，另外还兼任Plant,Cell and Environment编委会成员、Tree Physiology编辑、Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics编辑。
【报告题目】Dirt-poor soils, pesky parasites and friendly fungi shape plant diversity in south-western Australia
【报告摘要】South-western Australia is a global biodiversity hotspot, where the greatest plant diversity is found on the most severely phosphorus-impoverished soils in kwongkan (low heath on sandplains). Mycorrhizas are symbiotic associations between plants and fungi that enhance plant phosphorus acquisition. However, non-mycorrhizal plant families (e.g., Proteaceae) feature most prominently on the poorest soils, and these families are uncommon on soils containing more phosphorus. On the poorest soils, mycorrhizal species coexist with non-mycorrhizal species.
Almost all Proteaceae produce carboxylate-releasing cluster roots, which are capable of mobilising scarcely available phosphorus and micronutrients, including manganese. They effectively ‘mine’ these nutrients, as opposed to ‘scavenging’ them from the soil solution further away from the root surface, as mycorrhizas do. In addition to efficient acquisition of phosphorus from soil, south-western Australian Proteaceae species also use the acquired phosphorus very efficiently in photosynthesis, show a tremendous capacity to remobilise phosphorus from senescing leaves, and contain a large amount of phosphorus in their seeds. The traits referred to here help explain the ecological success of non-mycorrhizal species on severely phosphorus-impoverished soils in south-western Australia and elsewhere. These same traits may also have allowed non-mycorrhizal families to diversify in these severely nutrient-impoverished environments.
A very exciting question that remains to be explored further is why species with a superior phosphorus-acquisition strategy coexist with ones that are less effective at acquiring soil phosphorus. We have evidence that facilitation plays a role, and that nutrients mobilised by 'mining' species are also used by neighbours that lack this strategy. In addition, there is evidence that a trade-off exists between efficient phosphorus acquisition and pathogen susceptibility, i.e. species with ephemeral carboxylate-releasing roots are poorly defended against pathogens, especially oomycetes. Future research will explore this in greater detail.
【个人简介】张子良，西北工业大学生态环境学院教授，博士毕业于中国科学院成都生物研究所，毕业后先后于美国克莱姆森大学和伊利诺伊大学香槟分校从事博士后研究。主要从事植物根系/菌根对土壤生物地球化学循环调控机制以及全球变化下土壤碳过程等方向的研究。目前以第一或通讯作者在New Phytologist、Global Change Biology、Soil Biology & Biochemistry、Plant Journal、Functional Ecology、Journal of Applied Ecology等国际著名期刊发表 20余篇。担任Frontiers in Forests and Global Change编委、Frontiers in Plant Sciences客座编辑。